Horses are herbivorous and essentially exhibit hind gut fermentation. So it is very much essential to exercise proper feeding management in horses so as to obstruct both over feeding and under feeding. The salient features are emphasized regarding feeding.
1. Do not offer non nitrogenous protein substances like urea to horses of all categories as they can not digest like ruminants.
2. Horses should be supplied dry matter at least 1.5% of body weight.
Body weight (kg)= heart girth (cm)* 3.1 for medium breeds
4. The most typical concentrated feed given to horse are oats, barley, gram and wheat bran.
6. For better utilization and assimilation of nutrients, the entire daily ration may be divided into 4-6 individual meals.
7. Regularity in feeding, avoid full feeding before and after exercise and changing ration composition slowly are most important symbols in horse feeding.
8. In horses it is particular that fodder roughage is given before grains. But if chopped fodder is available then it may be mixed with grains or concentrate.
9. No group feeding is advised so far as grain feeding is concerned.
10. To prevent mineral deficiency, daily 25-40 gm mineral mix is added with concentrates.
11. A horse (without work) weighing 400 kg body weight will require probably 0.38 kg Digestible crude protein (DCP), 20 gm calcium, 20 gm phosphorous and 70mg carotene.
13. And for heavy work, it requires 1.10 kg DCP, 60 gm calcium, 60 gm phosphorus and 170 mg carotene.
14. Horses shouldn’t be watered at least 20-30 minutes before and after vigorous exercise.
15. The need for drinking water is 36liters per day and might vary according to seasons as in summer the requirement of water increases.
16. For general practise, it’s to offer water before feeding.
17. In general watering schedule, watering should be done three times a day in summer and twice a day in other seasons.
18. Early spring is considered as best breeding time in india.
19. Puberty is attained at the age of 18 months.
20. Mating should be allowed at 3 yrs of age when it attains 75% of body weight,
21. Eestrous cycle is 21 days and duration of heat is 4-6 days.
22. The should be bred two to three days after appearance of warmth symptoms.
23. The tail of the mare ought to be bandaged and stored away to one side so as to not interfere during copulation.
24. For breeding, 1 stallion is adequate for 30-40 mares.
25. A stallion should be used for 5 times in a week.
26. One most visible sight at the time of parturition is the appearance of beads of wax on teats one or two weeks prior to delivery.