In 1945, a distinct international war ended and yet another started.
The Cold War lasted about forty five decades. There was no immediate military campaigns between the 2 significant antagonists, the Soviet Union and the United States. Still billions of dollars were wasted dollars of millions of largely innocent lives have been lost in the struggle.
The United States had been the leader of the free market capitalist world. Its allies and America fought to contain the communist, totalitarian Soviet Union from growing into Europe, Asia, and Africa. Theaters as distant as Vietnam and Korea, Grenada and Cuba, Angola and Afghanistan, became battlegrounds between both ideologies. One postwar style quickly became apparent. The United States would not retreat into its former isolationist stance provided that there was considered a chilly War to wage.
Winston Churchill’s 1946 speech to Westminster Faculty in Missouri contained the initial reference to the communist regimes of Eastern Europe as an”iron curtain.”
The long term reasons supporting the Cold War were obvious. Western democracies had always been aggressive to the concept of a Greek state. The United States had refused recognition of the USSR for sixteen years following the Bolshevik takeover. American business executives had feared the ramifications of a politically driven employees’ business. World War II provided short term causes too.
There was hostility on the Soviet side also. 20 million Russian people perished during World War II. Stalin was enraged at the British and Americans who had waited so very long to open up a second front in France. This will have alleviated strain on the Soviet Union throughout the attacking Germans. Additionally, the USA terminated Lend Lease help to the Soviet Union before the war was complete. Lastly, the Soviet Union thought communism was the best political system for many countries in the world.
Stalin made guarantees throughout the battle about the liberty of eastern Europe where he blatantly renegaded. At the YALTA Conference, the USSR pledged to get into the war against Japan but no later than 3 weeks after the realization of the European conflict.
Although Stalin was there to collect Western claims, when the Soviet Union entered the war between the bombings of Nagasaki and Hiroshima, the United States not needed the aid of theirs. All these factors contributed to an environment of mistrust which increased tensions at the outbreak of the Cold War.
For virtually all of the 2nd half of the twentieth century, the USSR and some other countries have been interested in a Cold War represented by diplomatic and economic struggles. The communist bloc, as it came out in 1950, included nations on the west in addition to southeast of the Soviet Union.
At Potsdam, the Allies agreed on the postwar result for Nazi Germany. After territorial changes, Germany was divided into 4 Occupation zones with the United States, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union administering it. Germany was being democratized and de-Nazified. As soon as the Nazi leaders are arrested and war crimes trials started, a day will be agreed upon to the election associated with a new German government as well as the withdrawal of Allied soldiers.
This process was performed in the zones kept by the Western Allies. In the southern Soviet occupation zone, a puppet communist regime was elected. Generally there was no guarantee of repatriation with the west. Eventually such governments, aided by the Soviet Red Army arrived to drive all across eastern Europe. Stalin was determined to develop a buffer zone to prevent any forthcoming intrusion of the Russian heartland.